Criminal Justice Degrees
There are two big reasons why criminal justice degrees are currently so popular. One, they can serve as a launching pad for a wide range of careers. Two, more and more law enforcement agencies are requiring some college credit in order to qualify for a given position. Criminal justice programs cover everything from research methods and statistics to corrections to criminal law and give students a working knowledge of how the courts, corrections institutions, and law enforcement agencies function. Those who earn a degree often go on to accept jobs such as crime scene investigators, probation officers, correctional counselors, FBI special agents, paralegals, criminal justice professors, or police detectives.
Top Criminal Justice Degrees
The list below includes various fields of study and concentrations within the criminal justice field ranging from certificates to master's degrees. In the next section, we cover broad degree levels, from certificates to doctorates, for the general criminal justice degree.
A degree in computer forensics prepares graduates to identify and prevent theft, fraud, phishing scams, and other digital schemes. A bachelor's degree in computer forensics is usually the minimum requirement to get a job in the field, but master's and doctoral degrees are also common in the field. Coursework may include Networking Concepts, Computer Forensics, and Digital Forensics.
A corrections degree teaches students to work with those in correctional facilities as prison guards, correctional officers, or other roles. Associate degrees, bachelor's degrees, and graduate degrees are offered in corrections and coursework may include Correctional Administration, Foundations of Criminal Justice Systems, Issues in Corrections, Introduction to Criminal Law, Theories of Crime Causation, Constitutional Issues in Criminal Procedures, and Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Theory.
Counterterrorism degrees equip graduates to identify threats of terrorism originating in the US or abroad and to stop them before anyone is negatively affected. Most people pursuing a degree in counter terrorism get a four-year bachelor's degree or higher. Courses may include Foundations of Terrorism, Fundamentals of Intelligence, Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Weapons, Religious Extremism, Psychology of Violence, and Ethics. Students may also seek concentrations in areas such as Terrorist Operations, Counterintelligence, Threat Assessment, or Intel Operations.
A crime scene technician certificate program teaches graduates how to identify and collect evidence from crime scenes like homicides, robberies, and sexual assault, which can be used in a court of law. Certificates may take six to 18 months to complete and could include coursework like Criminal Investigation, Crime Scene Investigation, Homeland Security, and Forensic Chemistry and Trace Evidence Analysis.
A criminal investigations degree is usually a two-year program and prepares graduates to collect, record, and analyze evidence in a crime to lead to the apprehension of criminals involved. Criminal investigations coursework may include classes like Theory and Practice of Investigations, Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Investigations, The Criminal Mind, Investigating Crimes Against Property and the Private Sector, and Crime Scenes, Clues, Forensics and Evidence.
A degree in criminal justice administration is usually a Bachelor of Science or a master's degree in criminal justice, but there may be associate degrees available. Graduates of these programs are prepared for administration positions in law enforcement, courts, correctional facilities, or other areas. Coursework may include Theory and Practices of Law Enforcement, Criminal Evidence and Legal Issues, Judicial Process, Police and Community Relations, Supervision of Criminal Justice Personnel, and Probation and Parole.
Criminal psychology degrees are associate, bachelor's, or graduate degrees that prepare graduates to understand the criminal mind, social influences on crime, and human behavior in relation to criminal activity. A criminal psychology degree program may include courses like Criminal Justice Research & Writing, Constitutional Criminal Procedure, Judicial Process, Behavior Management, and Psychology of Criminal Behavior.
A degree in criminology helps graduates to understand why crime exists in society and may touch on a wide range of areas including the criminal justice system, psychology, or ballistics analysis. Criminology degrees can be pursued at the bachelor's level and beyond and may include coursework such as Theory in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Survey of Criminological Theories, Statistics, and Research Methods.
A cybersecurity (or cyber security) degree is sometimes called an information security degree and prepares graduates to help employers protect sensitive information, participate in forensic analysis involving cyber incidents, and secure computer networks. Most degrees in cyber security are at the bachelor's-level and above, but there are some certificates and associate degrees available. Coursework includes classes like Fundamentals of Computer Troubleshooting, Network Security, Linux System Administration, and Interconnecting Cisco Devices.
A degree in emergency management prepares graduates to help plan for disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, terrorism, disease, or pollution. Most emergency management degrees are bachelor's degrees and above and coursework may include Ethics & Critical Decision Making, International Disasters, Natural Hazards & Disasters, Risk Perception Awareness, and Theory & Legal Framework.
A fish and game warden degree program teaches concepts in wildlife biology, law and conservation enforcement practices, and administrative law. Most fish and game warden degree seekers enter two- or four-year programs and may encounter courses such as Ecotoxicology, Natural Resources Communications, Ichthyology, Principles of Botany, and Principles of Economics.
Forensic accounting degrees prepare graduates to investigate so-called “white-collar crimes,” including banking and financial schemes. Associate of Science degrees, bachelor's degrees, post-baccalaureate certificates, and graduate degrees are available in the field of forensic accounting, and coursework may include Intermediate Accounting, Fraud Examination, Legal Elements of Fraud, Auditing, and Foundations of Entrepreneurship.
A degree in forensic nursing combines the knowledge of medical practices with crime investigation, preparing graduates to identify possible foul play or negligence and testify in court. Four-year bachelor's degrees are usually the minimum requirement for forensic nurses, and applicants can expect to see courses like Foundations of Forensic Nursing, Criminalistics, Interprofessional Collaboration, and Forensic Nursing Science Practicum.
Degrees in forensic psychology prepare graduates to apply their psychological training to criminal cases. To become a registered forensic psychologist, a doctoral degree is required, though degrees at the bachelor's and master's levels are also available to those who wish to work in the field without being registered psychologists. Coursework may include Foundations of Graduate Study in Psychology, Abnormal Behavior, Intersection of Crime, Psychology, and the Law, Understanding Forensic Psychology Research, and Understanding Violence, Risk, and Threat Assessment.
A forensic science degree focuses on teaching graduates to identify, investigate, and analyze evidence from crime scenes. Forensic science degrees are available at the associate, bachelor's, and graduate levels. Courses may include Analytical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Metabolic Biochemistry, Instrumental Analysis, Expert Witness Testimony, and Forensic DNA Analysis.
Homeland security degrees impart graduates with a broad knowledge base including counter-terrorism, intelligence, border security, and emergency management. Associate degrees in homeland security are available, though most governmental positions (where the majority of these jobs are found) require a minimum of a bachelor's degree or above. Coursework may include Research Methods in Homeland Security Studies, Critical Infrastructure Protection, Border and Coastal Security, and Homeland Security Legal and Ethical Issues.
A degree in law enforcement is a broad degree preparing graduates to work as police officers, detectives or investigators, or in corrections. Degrees offered range from certificates to associate degrees to bachelor's degrees and above. Coursework in a law enforcement degree program may include Introduction to American Court System, Crime Victim Studies, Constitutional Issues in Criminal Procedures, and Research Methods & Statistics for Criminal Justice.
A legal nursing degree is most commonly a graduate degree that allows current registered nurses (RNs) to combine their knowledge of nursing with the legal expertise necessary to provide medical advice in legal matters. Legal nursing programs may include courses like Theoretical Bases for Nursing Practice, Advanced Informatics, Epidemiologic Methods in Health Care, Theoretical Basis for Nursing Practice, Legal Aspects of Health Care, and Liability of Health Care Organizations and the Health Care Professionals.
A legal studies degree prepares graduates to become paralegals or legal assistants by providing them with information about the legal process, the philosophy of law, and the criminal justice process. Legal studies degree programs may include courses like Theories of Law & Society, The Supreme Court & Public Policy, Punishment, Culture & Society, Law & Sovereignty, and Sociology of Law.
A paralegal certificate prepares holders to work as paralegals or legal assistants at law firms. Paralegal certificate programs typically include classes such as Essential Paralegal Studies, Paralegal Authority, Research, and Writing, Paralegal Contract Law, Paralegal Family Law, and Paralegal Tort Law.
A paralegal degree can be an associate degree, bachelor's degree, or graduate degree in legal studies that prepares graduates to work in the legal system as paralegals or legal assistants. Paralegal degree programs may include courses such as Advanced Legal Research & Writing, Advanced Litigation & Trial Practice, Intellectual Property, Corporate Law, Legal Project Management, and Legal Technology.
A degree in public administration can be a bachelor's degree, a master's degree, or a doctoral degree that prepares students to work in nonprofit, advocacy, or government agencies, often addressing social issues and public policy. Public administration degree programs may include courses such as Public Organization and Management, Research Methods, Introduction to Public Policy Analysis, Governmental Fiscal Decision Making, and Human Resources in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.
Degrees in security management, or private security, teach students to protect business assets by preparing for emergencies, analyzing risks, managing a team of security guards, or identifying possible threats to an organization. Security management degrees are offered as undergraduate degrees and graduate-level degrees and may include courses such as Theory and Practice of Security, The American Criminal and Civil Legal Systems, Infrastructure Security and National Defense, Risk Analysis, and Principles and Practices of Effective Emergency Planning.
A sociology degree teaches graduates to understand human behavior in a group context, preparing them for careers in business, government, public service, or counseling. Sociology degrees can be two-year associate degrees, bachelor's degrees, or graduate degrees. Coursework in sociology programs may include Social Problems, Global Social Change, Intro to Social Research, Modern Sociological Theory, Race Relations, Gender, and Industrialization and Social Change.
Degrees by Level
In order to select which degree you need, you should first determine the profession you intend to pursue. Some occupations require a two-year associate degree, while others require the more rigorous course of study offered by a master's degree program. As you browse the associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degree pages on this site, you'll learn about some of the jobs you'll be qualified to apply for after earning each respective degree.
Certificate in Criminal Justice
The most basic degree that can be earned in the criminal justice field is the Criminal Justice Certificate. Students are typically awarded a certificate with the completion of a specialized training program. Certificates can be used in a specific criminal justice career, such as crime scene photography, or as a stepping stone for a more advanced degree. Other types of careers that can be obtained with a certification in criminal justice include police and sheriff's patrol officers, corrections officers and bailiffs, law enforcement, and security services. Due to the competitive nature of these fields, candidates are advised to enroll in specialized programs. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for those in careers that typically require a criminal justice certification is between $31,170 and $60,270.1,2,3,4,5
Associate Degree in Criminal Justice
Many law enforcement careers only require the applicant to possess a high school diploma. However, more and more agencies are seeking applicants with an associate degree in criminal justice due to the rising complexity of the criminal justice system. A criminal justice associate's degree typically focuses on law enforcement, theories of crime causations, court systems, corrections, and crime control policies. Common professions that graduates of criminal justice associate degree programs pursue include police officer, border patrol agent, transit and railroad police, paralegal, immigration and customs inspector, bailiff, and corrections officer. The median salary earned for those in the aforementioned criminal justice jobs typically requiring an associate degree is between $31,170 and $60,270.1,2,3,5,6,7
Bachelor's in Criminal Justice Degree
A criminal justice bachelor's degree, whether earned on-campus or through an online criminal justice program, not only shows potential employers your willingness to work hard, but it is also the minimum requirement for many criminal justice professions. In addition to law enforcement careers, bachelor's degree holders can also work as fraud investigators, private detectives, DEA agents, first-line supervisors of correctional officers, probation officers, criminologists, computer forensics, information security analysts, immigration services officers, homeland security agents, fish and game wardens, and FBI agents. Most government and federal agencies, such as the FBI, DEA, and the Secret Service, require a minimum of a bachelor's degree. The median salary of these careers in the criminal justice field that usually require a bachelor's degree is between $18,343 and $77,210.1,2,7,9,10,11,12,13,14,15
Master's in Criminal Justice Degree
A master's degree in criminal justice allows students to explore particular aspects of criminal justice, such as administration and leadership. These candidates are also eligible to become social caseworkers and instructors in criminal justice. Areas of study that may be included in a master's criminal justice program may include forensic behavioral analysis, psychology, criminology, and sociology, issues in juvenile crime, criminal law, and criminal justice theory. Possible career opportunities for a master's degree include criminal investigators, social workers, substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors, criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, and management of forensic science faculties. The median salary for those in the above criminal justice careers, which typically require a master's degree, is between $45,900 and $77,210.13,16,19,20,21
Doctorate in Criminal Justice Degree
A doctoral degree in criminal justice is designed for those who have already obtained a master's degree and would like to advance their career. Opportunities for those with this highly-regarded degree are able to obtain a leadership, private, academic, policy making, or governmental research position with various agencies. The most common careers for those with a doctoral degree in criminal justice include criminal justice and law enforcement teachers, criminology researchers, criminal justice process and policy, forensic psychologists, lawyers, judges or magistrate judges, and those in criminological theory. The median salary of a person in one of the above careers typically requiring a doctoral degree in criminal justice is between $58,770 and $126,930.21,22,23,24,25
Question: Is this a good time to enter the field of law enforcement?
Answer: This is probably the best time to become a police officer. -Sue Rahr, former King County Sheriff (Seattle, WA)
Criminal Justice Degree Required for Typical Jobs
The government employment site O*Net Online provides data on the level of education of the following criminal justice professions:
- Bailiffs: 53% have a high school diploma, 32% have some college, and 13% have a post-secondary certificate.
- Correctional Officers and Jailers: 57% have a high school diploma, 22% have some college but no degree, and 15% have a post-secondary certificate.
- Court Reporters: 41% have a post-secondary certificate, 34% have an associate's degree, and 10% have some college but no degree.
- Criminal Investigators and Special agents: 42% have a high school diploma, 24% have some college but no degree, and 16% have a post-secondary certificate.
- First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers: 78% have a high school diploma, 11% have some college but no degree, and 7% have an associate's degree.
- Fish and Game Warden: 74% have a bachelor's degree, 9% have a high school diploma, and 9% have an associate's degree.
- Immigration and Customs Inspectors: 39% have a high school diploma, 27% have a bachelor's degree, and 14% have some college but no degree.
- Information Security Analysts: 65% have a bachelor's degree, 19% have a post-bachelor's certificate, and 10% have a post-secondary certificate.
- Paralegals and Legal Assistants: 44% have a bachelor's degree, 30% have an associate's degree, and 12% have some college but no degree.
- Police Detectives: 45% have a high school diploma, 21% have an associate's degree, and 16% have some college but no degree.
- Police Patrol Officers: 42% have a high school diploma, 24% have an associate's degree, and 22% have some college but no degree.
- Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists: 86% have a bachelor's degree, 7% have some college but no degree, and 7% have a master's degree.
- Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs: 55% have a high school diploma, 21% have a post-secondary certificate, and 19% have an associate's degree.
- Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors: 30% have a master's degree, 19% have a bachelor's degree, and 16% have an associate or professional degree.
- Transit and Railroad Police: 80% have an associate's degree, 8% have a post-secondary certificate, and 4% have a high school diploma.
-Joe Gamaldi, Board Member of the Houston Police Officers' Union
Finding Accredited Criminal Justice Programs
An important factor to consider when researching criminal justice programs is whether the school is accredited by a US government approved accreditation body. There are a small number of national and regional accreditation bodies that have been approved by the US Department of Education to evaluate whether a school meets minimum standards in quality. If a school has not received accreditation from one of these agencies, then students cannot receive federal student aid, credits may not be transferrable to another school, and employers may not recognize the degree. You can find a school's accreditation status with the US Department of Education's searchable database.
Is a Criminal Justice Degree Worth It?
According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, many entry-level criminal justice jobs will be available through 2024, though in general, the outlook is that criminal justice professions are projected to grow more slowly than other professions at 4%.2. Most of these jobs require some college credits, but more and more are requiring a minimum of an associate degree, if not a bachelor's degree. With the likelihood that criminal justice job opportunities will become more competitive over the next few years, taking the next step toward earning a bachelor's, master's, or even a doctoral degree will only expand your opportunities and earnings potential.
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: What can you do with a criminal justice degree?
Answer: There are many things you can do with a degree in criminal justice! Whether you have a general degree or a more specialized degree in an area such as law enforcement or forensic science, there are many criminal justice jobs available to those with expertise gained with your criminal justice degree program. Check out our Careers page for a complete list of what you can do with your degree.
Question: Should I get my criminal justice degree online?
Answer: While online degrees are convenient, they are not for everyone. Getting an on-campus or online criminal justice degree depends on your schedule and learning preferences. Online degrees are ideal for those who have less flexible schedules and may be working their way through school. An online degree program will afford you the flexibility to learn on your own time and complete assignments in the comfort of your own home or office. Online criminal justice degrees also allow you to attend a criminal justice school in another state, so this could be a good option if you have your eye on a good school that is not in your area. Traditional on-campus degrees are a better choice if you prefer traditional classroom learning and a set schedule. In the end, whether you get an online criminal justice degree or on-campus one is a personal choice. Research your options by checking out our top traditional and online schools.
Question: How long does it take to get a criminal justice degree?
Answer: The answer to this question depends on three primary factors: the level of degree you pursue (certificate, associate, bachelor's, master's, or doctorate), the program itself (as a criminal justice degree at one school may take longer than the same degree at a different school), and whether you attend full- or part-time. As a general rule, if attending school full-time, you can expect to complete a certificate program in around one year, an associate degree in around two years, a bachelor's degree in in criminal justice in three to four years, a master's degree in one to two years, and a doctorate degree in two to three years.
- 20 Jobs You Can Get With a Criminal Justice Degree
- 10 Jobs You Can Get With a Master's in Criminal Justice Degree
- Is a Criminal Justice Degree Worth It?
1. O*Net Online, Police Patrol Officers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3051.01
2. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Police and Detectives: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm
3. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Correctional Officers and Bailiffs: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/correctional-officers.htm
4. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers: https://www.bls.gov/OOH/protective-service/security-guards.htm
5. O*Net Online, Transit and Railroad Police: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3052.00
6. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Paralegals and Legal Assistants: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/paralegals-and-legal-assistants.htm
7. O*Net Online, Immigration and Customs Inspectors: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3021.05
8. USAJobs, Border Patrol Agent: https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/443445400/
9. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Private Detectives and Investigators: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/private-detectives-and-investigators.htm
10. US Office of Personnel Management, Salary Table 2016-GS: https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/salary-tables/pdf/2016/GS.pdf
11. O*Net Online, First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-1011.00
12. O*Net Online, Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1092.00
13. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Forensic Science Technicians: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1092.00
14. O*Net Online, Information Security Analysts: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/15-1122.00
15. USAJobs, Immigration Services Officer: https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/443385200/
16. O*Net Online, Criminal Investigators and Special Agents: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3021.03
17. US Bureau of Labor Statisitcs, Occupational Employment Statistics, Fish and Game Wardens: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes333031.htm
18. O*Net Online, Fish and Game Wardens: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/33-3031.00
19. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Social Workers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/community-and-social-service/social-workers.htm
20. O*Net Online, Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1011.00
21. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes251111.htm
22. O*Net Online, Clinical Psychologists: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes193039.htm
23. O*Net Online, Lawyers: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/23-1011.00
24. O*Net Online, Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates: https://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/23-1023.00
25. US Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Judges and Hearing Officers: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/judges-and-hearing-officers.htm