How to Become a Paralegal: Career and Salary Information
Paralegals, or legal assistants, work in private law firms or in the public sector and perform support tasks for attorneys. Paralegals assist attorneys by preparing for hearings, trials, and meetings and by maintaining communication with clients. These legal professionals can provide numerous legal services, although tasks that are considered practicing law, such as representing a client in court, are prohibited.
Table of Contents
- Paralegal Career Description, Duties, and Common Tasks
- Steps for Becoming a Paralegal
- Other Helpful Skills and Experience
- Types of Paralegal Careers
- Why Becoming a Paralegal Is a Promising Career Choice
- Paralegal Interviews
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Additional Resources
Paralegal Career Description, Duties, and Common Tasks
Paralegals investigate the facts of a case, collect documents from a variety of sources, research legal cases, write reports and legal documents, draft pleadings and motions to be filed with the court, and assist attorneys during trials. Outside of courtroom preparation, legal assistants may prepare civil documents such as wills, contracts, mortgages, and separation agreements; interview witnesses and clients; and maintain communication with clients. Client contact may be extensive or minimal depending on the organization for which the paralegal works. However, paralegals are prohibited from doing tasks that are considered “practicing law.” Providing legal advice, representing clients, accepting a client's case, and determining a client's fee are all prohibited tasks for paralegals and must be performed by a practicing attorney.
Steps for Becoming a Paralegal
So you know you want to become a paralegal. Now what? We recommend the following steps to give you the best chance of success in your chosen career path:
1. Attend a paralegal degree or certificate program.
Paralegals generally must have some formal education to find employment. Community colleges typically offer two-year paralegal programs while colleges and universities feature four-year programs. While some organizations will hire candidates with a two-year degree or certificate, the National Federation of Paralegals Association asserts that employers are increasingly requiring paralegals to possess a four-year degree and recommends that all aspiring paralegals work toward a bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree programs in paralegal studies and legal studies are both common. Most professional organizations, including the National Association of Legal Assistants (NALA) and the National Federation of Paralegals (NFP), recommend choosing a program that is approved by the American Bar Association (ABA). You can find out more about available paralegal programs through our Paralegal Degree Center.
2. Get hired.
Paralegal programs typically require students to complete an internship in a legal setting. An internship provides hands-on experience and, in some cases, may lead to an employment offer after graduation. Paralegals may find employment at a range of organizations, including banks, insurance companies, private law firms, professional trade organizations, real estate firms, and the legal departments of corporations. Opportunities also abound in the public sector. State and federal government agencies, consumer organizations, public defenders' or prosecutors' offices, and community legal services programs all hire paralegals.
3. Get paralegal job training while working.
Paralegals who gain experience may find many opportunities for advancement, including being promoted to management positions. You will likely gain some experience during your internship in school, but you can also expect to learn on-the-job once you take your first position. Use this opportunity to figure out what aspects of the field you like and which aspects you don't care for so that you can be more focused in your next job search and seek out a paralegal job that best suits you.
Other Helpful Skills and Experience
While not mandatory in most states, paralegal certification may provide an edge during the employment process. Legal assistants have several options for certification. The National Federation of Paralegals, the National Association of Legal Assistants, and the American Alliance of Paralegals all offer certification programs. Prospective legal assistants should have strong analytical skills, should know the importance of attention to detail, and should be prepared to stay current with technology. Read more about certification options for paralegals on our Paralegal Certification page.
Types of Paralegal Careers
Paralegals assist lawyers with preparing for trials, hearings, and corporate meetings. In addition to working for law firms, paralegals often provide assistance to the legal and finance departments in large corporations as well as nonprofit and government organizations. Below are descriptions of possible paralegal careers.
A bankruptcy paralegal navigates a debtor (someone who owes money) through a federally approved process that allows him or her to be relieved of that debt by negotiating a deal with creditors and the court. Bankruptcy can involve many steps, including attending meetings between attorneys for both parties to take notes and to make records, drafting applications, petitions, and schedules, conducting real property searches to establish known assets, ordering appraisals, interviewing various individuals, and preparing for hearings. Some bankruptcies can be very complex and involve additional steps of varying degrees of complexity.
Corporate paralegals assist lawyers with the organization and planning of corporate transactions and business matters. Corporate paralegals ensure that companies have all the necessary paperwork (filings with the Secretary of State, for instance) completed and filed and comply with all applicable federal and state laws. A paralegal specializing in corporate law must have a thorough understanding of mergers and acquisitions, investments, employment laws, contract law, banking, finance, and securities.
A criminal law paralegal supports the work of criminal defense attorneys and prosecutors. They will perform duties similar to that of other paralegals (filing paperwork, conducting research, interviewing witnesses and defendants, corresponding with clients, etc.). Their work, however, will specifically support the building of cases for or against accused criminals. Criminal law paralegals may also be known as criminal defense paralegals, criminal litigation paralegals, or simply criminal paralegals. To read more about criminal law paralegals, see our Criminal Law Paralegal Career Guide.
Immigration paralegals work for immigration attorneys, who specialize in helping clients navigate immigration laws to obtain visas, become naturalized citizens or legal residents, and solve other immigration-related issues. They may also assist attorneys who help US citizens complete the adoption process of children from abroad. They work for law firms, corporations or government agencies. Immigration paralegals generally assist attorneys and help clients through the process of becoming a naturalized citizen, a legal resident, or to help a US citizen go through the immigration process for adopting a child from abroad. They typically assist attorneys in researching the facts of each case, writing reports and assist lawyers during trials.
A legal assistant is another general term for a paralegal. Legal assistants and paralegals both assist lawyers in trial preparation and research. However, only individuals who have earned certification as a Certified Legal Assistant (CLA) from the National Association of Legal Assistants (NALA) can use the title of “legal assistant.”
The term legal secretary was once synonymous with the term paralegal, but over time the occupations have become differentiated. While paralegals perform attorney support tasks such as legal research and drafting legal documents, legal secretaries provide administrative support to attorneys and paralegals, focusing on day-to-day tasks such as answering phones, setting appointments, scheduling meetings, and maintaining automatic reminder systems. Legal secretaries provide administrative support under the direction of the attorneys or senior paralegals with whom they work.
A litigation paralegal's job begins with discovery and an investigation into the facts of a case. Paralegals may assist in deposing witnesses and collecting and cataloging facts in the case file. Pleadings, which the litigation paralegal may write and file, may also occur during this time as attorneys attempt to maneuver their clients into the most favorable positions. The paralegal will also be involved in pretrial and trial by organizing exhibits and evidence, conducting research, and helping the attorney establish the case for the client, which may involve preparing witnesses, evaluating jurors, and acting as a liaison between all parties to the process. The litigation paralegal often assists with the settlement of the case and an appeal, if necessary, which includes organizing and analyzing data, communicating with the necessary parties, and acting as a liaison with court officials.
Personal Injury Paralegal
Personal injury can take many forms, which makes it necessary for personal injury paralegals to possess a wide skill set. Major duties include interviewing clients, taking notes and creating detailed records, conducting legal research, acting as a liaison between interested parties, and ensuring proper documents are filed with the court in a timely manner. A personal injury paralegal may deal with medical personnel and documents, so familiarity with administrative procedures used in the medical field will prove helpful. Personal injury cases often lead to trial. Therefore, the ability to prepare documents for the court is beneficial. If the case does not go to trial, the paralegal may assist in a settlement negotiation, which also involves research and analysis.
Related Careers in the United States Court System
There are many other law-related careers that you may be interested in if being a paralegal interests you. While each career has its own education and/or certification requirements, they are all found within the legal and court system. Following are a few other job paths that may be available for legal studies and paralegal studies majors. Keep in mind that more education will be required to become a lawyer.
Why Becoming a Paralegal Is a Promising Career Choice
The American Bar Association (ABA) defines a paralegal as follows: “a person qualified by education, training or work experience who is employed or retained by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency or other entity who performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible.” Put in simpler terms, a paralegal is a professional staff member who performs allowable legal tasks under attorney supervision.
If you're seeking a challenging and engaging position in a growing field, consider pursuing this career. Paralegals are a vital part of any legal team, and they take on interesting, important assignments that often vary on a daily basis. If you enjoy investigating facts, performing research, writing, and working with people in a fast-paced atmosphere, chances are you may enjoy this career path.
Interesting and Engaging Work Environment
The exact job duties of a paralegal (sometimes called a “legal assistant”) can vary depending on where they're employed and the area of law in which they work. Paralegals perform tasks such as conducting legal and factual research, drafting court documents and correspondence, reviewing and summarizing records, filing documents with the court, maintaining files, and communicating with clients. They can do many of the same tasks that an attorney can do, with the exception of accepting cases and setting fees, giving legal advice, and representing clients in court. About 73% of paralegals work for law firms according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, but governmental agencies, businesses, and non-profit organizations also utilize these professionals.1
Many Options for Education
In most states, there are no specific education requirements to become a paralegal. Many community colleges, technical schools, and universities offer specific degree programs to prepare for this career, including certificates as well as associate's and bachelor's degrees in paralegal and legal studies. It's also possible, but increasingly rare, to obtain a position based on other work experience and on-the-job training. When deciding on a school, consider choosing one with an ABA-accredited paralegal program. ABA-accredited curricula must meet strict criteria established by the ABA, and by choosing an ABA-approved program you can rest assured that you're getting a quality education. For more information about paralegal degrees, read our Paralegal Degree Center.
Strong Employment Outlook
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the paralegal job field is expected to grow at a rate of 15% through 2026.1 As law firms and other employers continue to cut budgets while the demand for legal services increases, employers are choosing to utilize paralegals whenever possible since paralegals can perform legal tasks at a lower cost per hour than attorneys. The BLS predicts that the industries with the strongest job growth for paralegals over the next few years will be finance firms, insurance firms, consulting firms, and healthcare providers.1
Competitive Salary & Benefits
A 2018 National Association of Legal Assistants & Paralegals (NALA) study on paralegal salaries indicated that the average annual paralegal salary was $67,578.2 This survey reported that this average compensation increased 9.6% over 2016.2 The BLS provides a significantly lower number, listing the average salary for paralegals in 2015 at $50,940, with the highest-earning 10% of paralegals making over $82,050 per year.1 The main driver for the disparity is likely the level of professional involvement of self-selected respondents to the NALA survey as well as sample sizes; the NALA survey results are based on 1,112 responses, whereas the BLS uses much larger data sets compiled from nationwide long-term population information from the US Census Bureau and other state and federal agencies.1,2
Within the salary ranges available, it's important to understand that how much an individual paralegal makes depends on many factors including their background, job performance, type of employer, and area of law. It is possible for an experienced paralegal working in a highly specialized or technical field to make a six-figure salary. Most paralegal positions also include numerous other benefits such as medical, dental, life, and disability insurance, paid time off, and company-matched 401(k) or IRA accounts. Many employers also provide tuition reimbursement or pay for classes and seminars.
Average Annual Salary by State
A paralegal career offers the opportunity to perform engrossing, meaningful work in a professional atmosphere. The typical educational requirements can be completed in as little as two years with an associate's degree or even less with a paralegal certificate, and the starting salary is reasonable – with plenty of room for growth. Paralegal salary can vary significantly by geographic area; those in large cities tend to make more, while those in states where paralegals are in high demand will also typically see higher salaries. In the five largest US states by population, paralegal salaries are as follows:
- New York: $58,750
- Florida: $50,120
- Texas: $56,270
- Illinois: $57,180
- California: $61,240
Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics as of May 2018.3
We interviewed paralegal leaders from across the country to provide professional career advice.
- Kristine M. Custodio, President of the San Diego Paralegal Association
- Karen R. George, President of the South Florida Paralegal Association
- Lori Boris, President of the Minnesota Paralegal Association
- Lynda Cmara, President of New Haven County Association of Paralegals in Connecticut
- Rachel Nesbit, Vice President of the Mississippi Paralegal Association
- Best Paralegal Career Advice From 17 Leaders in the Paralegal Field
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: Why should I choose a bachelor's program instead of an associate's program?
Answer: More employers are now requiring paralegals to hold a bachelor's degree in paralegal studies or legal studies. A bachelor's degree provides legal assistants with more job opportunities, and typically a higher starting salary.
Question: Are online programs a good alternative to a traditional program?
Answer: Yes. In fact, the National Federation of Paralegals asserts that distance programs provide flexibility and a “viable alternative” for self-motivated individuals.
Question: What type of schedule does a paralegal generally work?
Answer: Paralegals typically work a full time, 40 hour a week schedule. However, overtime may be necessary.
Question: What is the best way to find employment?
Answer: Making a good impression as an intern may lead to an offer of employment. Aspiring paralegals who are still in school should take advantage of internship opportunities and the services of their school's career placement office. Joining a local paralegal association can also lead to opportunities.
- American Association for Paralegal Education: A paralegal resource providing conference and education information.
- American Bar Association: All about the benefits of ABA membership for paralegals.
- Free Criminal Justice and Law Lectures: Our Free Criminal Justice Lectures resource provides video and audio lectures from 15+ criminal justice and law-related college courses that are available to watch or listen to online for free, taught by professors from top US universities like Harvard, Yale, New York University, and UC Berkeley.
- National Federation of Paralegals: Education, news, certification, and other information for prospective and current paralegals.
- NALA: National Association of Legal Assistants: A nationwide paralegal organization offering professional development programs and continuing education for paralegals.
- NALS: The Association for Legal Assistants: An education and certification resource for paralegals and legal assistants.
- National Paralegal Certification: Learn about the different paralegal certification options available and the requirements for earning certification.
- The American Alliance of Paralegals, Inc.: A membership-driven professional resource for paralegals.
- Top Paralegal Blogs: Criminal Justice Degree Schools has published a list of the Top Paralegal Blogs from thought-leading bloggers to provide insights and career advice for aspiring paralegals who are interested in acquiring a degree and beginning a successful career in this field.
- Top Criminal Law Blogs: Learn about the criminal area of the legal field by viewing our top criminal legal blogs.
- Top Divorce Law Blogs: Read about divorce law on our top divorce law blogs list.
- US Directory of Paralegal Associations: Our comprehensive directory features over 140 US paralegal associations organized by state. Joining a paralegal association can help you network and advance your career. Find the associations near you.
1. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, Paralegals and Legal Assistants: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/paralegals-and-legal-assistants.htm
2. 2018 NALA National Utilization and Compensation Report: https://www.nala.org/sites/default/files/files/users/2018%20Utilization%20%26%20Comp%20Summary%20of%20Findings.pdf
3. Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2018 Occupational Employment and Wages, Paralegals and Legal Assistants: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes232011.htm#st