Corrections Officer Career Guide
Corrections officers, also known as correctional officers and detention deputies, supervise individuals who have been arrested and are being held for trial or who have been convicted of a crime and are serving a sentence in a jail, a reformatory, or a penitentiary.
Corrections Officer Description, Duties, and Common Tasks
Corrections officers maintain security of the facility and may:
- Carry a weapon
- Conduct inmate and cell searches
- Document inmates’ behavior and anything unusual that happens during a shift
- Guard against prisoner escapes
- Inspect all areas of the institution
- Protect corrections officers from prisoner assaults
- Review inmates’ incoming and outgoing mail
- Stop fights between inmates
How to Become a Corrections Officer: Requirements and Qualifications
Prospective corrections officers may find employment with only a high school diploma or a GED. However, most employers favor an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree. For a federal corrections job, corrections officers must have at least a bachelor’s degree and three years of work experience in a related field such as supervision or counseling. Law enforcement or military experience may also be acceptable. Applicants for a position as a corrections officer must:
- Be at least 18 or 21 years old, depending on location
- Be a US citizen
- Have no felony convictions
- Be in good health
- Possess sound judgment
- Have the ability to make quick, appropriate decisions
- Pass a written exam
- Agree to a background investigation
- Submit to periodic drug testing
- Be prepared to work in dangerous situations
- Understand the high risk of injury in a correctional setting
Corrections Officer Job Training
Newly hired corrections officers participate in a training academy prior to completing on-the-job training that encompasses communication skills, interpersonal relations, firearms training, procedures for custody and security, self-defense, and guidelines and restrictions that are placed on them by the law. Once hired by a corrections facility, correctional officers must generally complete on the job training.
Other Helpful Skills and Experience
Prospective correctional officers will benefit if they can make decisions quickly, know how to effectively negotiate, and have the physical ability to protect themselves from potentially violent inmates. Previous law enforcement or military experience may be advantageous when seeking employment.
Examples of Possible Job Titles for this Career
- Correctional officer
- Corrections officer
Career Opportunities and Employers
Corrections officers, who gain the necessary experience, may be promoted to such advanced positions as sergeant, supervisor, or administrator. Corrections officers are typically employed by county, state, and federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Corrections Officer Salary and Outlook
As of 2012, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports a median annual salary of $38,970 for correctional officers.1 Typical benefits include health insurance, retirement benefits, and a uniform allowance. The demand is expected to increase slightly over the next decade, taking into account population growth, rising incarceration rates, longer sentences for criminals, and the retirement and transfer into other occupations of existing corrections officers. The BLS projects job growth for correctional officers to be about 5% from 2012-2022, slower than the average occupation.1
Youth Correctional Officers
Youth correctional officers work with minors incarcerated in a variety of federal, state, county, and local juvenile detention centers, including overnight holding or short-term facilities, various treatment centers, specialized work camps, and prison facilities. Ensuring the safety and security of the incarcerated minors is one of the main functions of juvenile correctional officers. Officers must deal with emergencies while upholding the facility’s rules for offender rehabilitation and treatment programs. The young offenders are not all violent, convicted criminals. Juvenile correction officers must possess strong communication and interpersonal skills.
The job requirements for youth correctional officers can vary greatly based on state and local hiring guidelines. At a minimum, correctional officers in youth facilities will need a high school diploma and possibly one to two years of community college courses. Many facilities require candidates to have an undergraduate degree in a related field, such as law enforcement, criminal justice, psychology, or social work. Facilities often provide additional specialized training for newly hired officers.
Juvenile corrections officers oversee the youth housed at the facility and during any necessary transportation, provide assistance with therapy or counseling sessions, and dispense medications or other treatments. Youth corrections officers may also:
- Complete reports
- Perform checks for illegal drugs or contraband
- Update offender records
Incarcerated juvenile offenders may be violent or disturbed. As a result, the correctional officers must calmly handle a variety of situations, including escape or suicide attempts, fires, fights among inmates, and population riots.
Frequently Asked Questions About This Career
What type of hours do correctional officers typically work?
Corrections officers generally work 40 hours a week. However, because they are needed 24 hours a day, seven days a week, prospective correctional officers should be prepared to work nights, weekends, and holidays rather than a traditional nine to five schedule. Overtime is common.
What are working conditions like for corrections officers?
Working conditions depend on at what type of facility an officer works where in a facility an officer is assigned. Some prisons, for example, are overcrowded and do not have modern conveniences such as air conditioning. Corrections officers should be prepared to work indoors and outdoors in a variety of weather conditions, including the heat and the cold.
Are there risks associated with working as a corrections officer?
Yes. Inmates may be violent and, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, corrections officers “have one of the highest rates of injuries and illnesses, often resulting from confrontations with inmates.”
What type of advancement opportunities are available?
Correctional officers with the proper qualifications, including experience and education, may earn promotion to such positions as warden or corrections sergeant.
- American Correctional Association – A professional organization for individuals working in corrections that provides professional development and training opportunities.
- American Correctional Officer Intelligence Network – A national nonprofit organization.
- American Correctional Officer – A national organization promoting the safety of public corrections officers and to educating the public and the media.
- Corrections USA – A national organization, for corrections officers with local, state, and federal government, that provides a voice for the rights and needs of corrections officers.
Online Corrections Degrees, Training, Programs and Schools
Interested in a career similar to a corrections officer? Check out these related careers:
- Conservation Officer
- Criminal Investigator
- FBI Agent
- Fire Investigator
- First-Line Supervisor of Correctional Officers
- Fish and Game Warden
- Homicide Detective
- Narcotics Officer
- Police Officer
- United States Park Police
- US Marshal
- Victims Advocate
- Crime Scene Investigator
1. Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/correctional-officers.htm
2. The Princeton Review: http://www.princetonreview.com/Careers.aspx?cid=175